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The Hardy BoysFrank and Joe Hardyare fictional characters who appear in various mystery series for children and teens. The characters were created by American writer Edward Stratemeyerthe founder of the Stratemeyer Syndicatea book-packaging firm, best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school the books have been written by many different ghostwriters over the years. The books are published under the collective pseudonym Franklin W.

Beginning inthe books were extensively revised, partially to eliminate racial stereotypes. The books were also written in a simpler style in an attempt to compete with television.

Some critics argue that in the process, the Hardy Boys changed, becoming more best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school of the law and simultaneously more affluent, "agents of the adult ruling class" [2] and the like.

Most, however, saw the updates as an best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school to make the style of click here books more modern, while lamenting the loss of the richer pre-war descriptive style. Similar complaints were made about the updates to the comparable girls' series Nancy Drew. A new Hardy Boys series, the Hardy Boys Casefileswas created inand featured murders, violence, and international espionage.

The original "Hardy Boys Mystery Stories" series ended in A new series, Undercover Brotherswas launched the same year, featuring updated versions of the characters who narrate their adventures in the first person. The Undercover Brothers ended in and was replaced in by The Hardy Boys Adventuresalso narrated in the first person.

Through all these changes, the characters have remained popular. The books sell more than a million copies a year. The Hardy Boys have been featured in computer games and five television shows and used to promote merchandise such as lunchboxes and jeans. Critics have offered many explanations for the characters' longevity, suggesting variously that the Hardy Boys embody simple wish fulfillment, [4] [5] American ideals of masculinity, [6] American ideals of boyhood, [7] best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school well-respected father paradoxically argued to be inept, best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school and the possibility of the triumph of good over evil.

They live in the city of Bayport on Barmet Bay [10] with their father, detective Fenton Hardytheir mother, Laura Hardy[a] and their Aunt Gertrude. Frank, the older brother, is eighteen sixteen in earlier versionsand his younger brother Joe is seventeen fifteen in earlier versions.

The brothers nominally attend high school in Bayport, where they are in the same grade, [b] but school is rarely mentioned in the books and never best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school the Hardys in solving mysteries. He sometimes asks them for help, while at other times they stumble upon villains and incidents that are connected to his cases. In the Undercover Brothers series, begun inthe Hardys are members of an organization known as American Teens Against Crimewhich assigns them to cases.

The Hardy Boys are sometimes assisted in solving mysteries by their friends Chet MortonPhil CohenBiff HooperJerry Gilroyand Tony Pritoand, less frequently, by their platonic girlfriends Callie Shaw and Iola Morton Chet's sister.

The Hardy Boys are constantly involved in adventure and action. Despite frequent danger, the boys "never lose their nerve They are hardy boys, luckier and more clever than anyone around them. Murder, drug peddling, race horse best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school, diamond smugglingmedical malpracticebig-time auto theft, even in the s the hijacking of strategic materials and espionageall were conducted with Bayport as a nucleus. The Hardys also travel freely within the United States by motorcyclemotor boaticeboattrain and airplane[16] as well as their own car.

Stratemeyer accordingly hired Canadian Leslie McFarlane to ghostwrite the first volumes in the series. McFarlane would author nineteen of the first twenty-five volumes in the series. Subsequent titles have been written by a number of different ghostwriters, all under the pseudonym Franklin W. The first three titles were published inand were an immediate success: by mid overbooks had been sold.

Edward Stratemeyer's daughter, Edna Stratemeyer Squier, and possibly Stratemeyer himself, wrote outlines for the first volumes in the series. Many authors worked on the revised books, writing new manuscripts; some of them also wrote plot outlines and edited the books. Among the authors who worked on the revised versions were Adams, Svenson, Buechler, Lilo Wuenn, Anne Shultes, Alistair Hunter, Tom Mulvey, Best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school Doll, and Priscilla Baker-Carr.

Lawrence and Buranelli continued to write titles; other authors included Karl Harr III and Laurence Swinburne. Adams filed a countersuit, claiming that, best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school author of the Nancy Drew Mystery Storiesshe retained the rights to her work.

Although Adams had written many Nancy Drew titles after and edited others, she claimed to be the author of all of the early titles. When Mildred Bensonthe author of the early Nancy Drew volumes, was called to testify about her work for the Syndicate, Benson's role in writing the manuscripts of early titles was revealed in court with extensive documentation, contradicting Adams' claims to authorship.

Furthermore, any new publishers chosen by Adams were completely within their rights to print new titles. Beginning inthe books were learn more here revised, and some commentators find that the Hardys' characters changed in the process.

I opted for Quality. We can tell the newspapers that we believe our father has met with foul play and that you won't bother to look into the matter, but don't let us disturb you at all—" "What's that about the newspapers? In general, the world of these early volumes is a "[dark] and Would civilization crumble if kids got the notion best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school people who ran the world were sometimes stupid, occasionally wrong and even corrupt at times?

These early volumes have been called models of diversity for their day, since among the Hardys' friends are Phil Cohen, who is Jewishand the Italian immigrant Tony Prito. Vilnoff, for example, the villain in the The Sinister Sign-Postis described as "swarthy" and "a foreigner", notes critic Steve Burgess. We sense his untrustworthy nature immediately when he sits down beside the boys at a football game click at this page doesn't understand it, despite the boys' best efforts to explain.

When he does grasp something, you know it. Best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school he adds genially, "I haf you vhere I vant you now! Twenty-five chapters are not enough to solve the mystery of his nationality. The end result, however, was less the removal of stereotypes than the removal of non-white characters altogether [55] and the creation of an "ethnically cleansed Bayport". The books were shortened from 25 chapters to 20 and the writing style was made terser.

The Flickering Torch Mysteryfor example, was changed from a plot involving an actual flickering torch used as a signal by a best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school to a plot featuring a rock club called "The Flickering Torch".

Even villains no longer smoked or drank, and scenes involving guns and shoot-outs were compressed or eliminated, in favor of criminals simply giving themselves up. They are members and agents of the adult ruling class, acting on behalf of that ruling class.

The Hardys were also featured in two new series, the Hardy Boys Casefiles and the Clues Brothers. The latter series, modeled on the Nancy Drew Notebookswas aimed at a younger audience, and ran from to In contrast, the Casefilesbegun a decade earlier inwas aimed at an older audience than the Hardy Boys Mystery Stories.

Hand me the Uzi! I was told the emphasis was on high action and suspense and there had to be a cliff-hanger ending to every chapter. In these volumes, the Hardys' adventures are narrated in the first person, each brother alternating chapters. This fresh approach to telling the adventures reveals two boys quite foreign to how they have been portrayed before, egotistical and jealous, and longtime readers will find few connections with the boys' previous personalities.

The boys' Aunt Gertrude becomes "Trudy", their mother Laura is given a career as a librarian, and best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school father is semi-retired. The boys are given their cases by a secret group known as ATAC, an acronym for American Teens Against Crime. In this new series, the Hardy Boys seem "more like regular kids — who have lots of wild adventures — in these books, which also deal with issues that kids today might have thought about.

For example, best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school second book in the series, Running on Fumesdeals with environmentalists who go a little too far to to save trees.

T" behind the title, meaning that it was a " working title. For the first time sincethe books will be issued in hardcover, along with paperback editions. The longest-running series of books to feature the Hardy Boys is the Hardy Boys Mystery Storiessometimes also called the Hardy Boys Mysteries.

The brothers were also featured in a few standalone books, such as The Hardy Boys Ghost Storiesand some crossover titles check this out they teamed up with other characters such as Nancy Drew or Tom Swift.

Hardy Boys books have been extensively reprinted in the United Kingdomwith new illustrations and cover art. The Hardys' adventures have click here been translated into over twenty-five languages, including NorwegianSwedishSpanishIcelandicHebrewFrenchGermanJapaneseRussianMalayand Italian. The first of the serials, The Mystery of the Applegate Treasurewas aired on The Mickey Mouse Club in during the show's second season.

In the mids, sales of Hardy Boys books began to drop. The Stratemeyer Syndicate conducted a survey, which revealed that the decline in sales was due to the perceived high cost of the books and to competition from television. The pilot, based on The Mystery of the Chinese Junkwas aired on the National Broadcasting Company NBC on September 8, and starred Tim Matthieson later Matheson as Joe Hardy and Rick Gates as Frank.

Both actors were twenty at the time of production and portrayed the Hardy Boys as young adults rather than children, as they had been in the Mickey Mouse Club serials. The show did poorly, however, and the series was abandoned. Best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school group of professional musicians performed all the songs on the series, and toured best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school the United States.

The prime time series starred Parker Stevenson and Shaun Cassidy as Frank and Joe Hardy; Pamela Sue Martin and later Janet Louise Johnson played Nancy Drew. During the first season, the series alternated between episodes featuring the Hardy Boys one week and Nancy Drew the next.

The Hardy Boys were cast as young adults Stevenson and Cassidy were twenty-four and eighteen respectively during the filming of the first episodes to appeal to a prime time television audience.

The series featured original plots as well as ones based on Hardy Boys books, among them The Clue of the Screeching OwlThe Disappearing Floor and The Flickering Torch Mystery. The series received an Emmy nomination and featured a number of guest stars, including Kim CattrallRay MillandHoward Duffand Ricky Nelson. The series returned for a third season, dropping the Nancy Drew character completely and shortening its title to The Hardy Boys.

Inanother TV adaptation, simply called The Hardy Boys was produced by Canadian company Nelvana normally an animation firmsyndicated by New Line Television[89] and was dubbed in French for airing in Quebec and France as well as in the United States. The characters were portrayed as in their early twenties, Frank working as a reporter and Joe still in college.

The show lasted for only one season of thirteen episodes due to poor ratings; a series based on Nancy Drew that ran alongside it in syndication suffered the same fate. Best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school explanation for this continuing popularity is that the Hardy Boys are simple wish fulfillment.

Their adventures allow readers to vicariously experience an escape from the mundane. She tries to argue that "racist stereotypes are She further claims that this is the reason for the popularity of the Applewood Books reprints of the original, unrevised texts rather that the widely cited blandness of the rewrites.

They are "well-scrubbed Boy Scout types" [3] who "fetishized squareness". National Lampoon ran us essay esl website school proofreading article in entitled "The Undiscovered Notebooks of Franklin W.

Dixon", in which the authors "purport to have stumbled upon some unpublished Hardy Boys manuscripts", including "The Party Boys and the Case of the Missing Scotch" and "The Hardly Boys in the Dark Secret of the Spooky Closet".

Others have pointed to the Hardy Boys' relationship with their father as a key to the success of the series.

As Tim Morris notes, while Fenton Hardy is portrayed as a great detective, his sons are usually the ones that link cases, making Fenton Hardy a paradoxical figure: He is always there, he knows everything. He is infallible but always failing.

When the boys rescue him, he is typically emaciated, dehydrated, semi-conscious, delirious; they must succor him with more info bars and water.

He can take on any shape, but reveals his identity within moments of doing so. He never discusses a case except the one he's working on in a given novel, so that his legendary close-mouthedness turns to garrulousness when a Hardy Boys novel begins, which is of course the only time we ever get to see him. All the same, he only discusses the case in enough detail to mislead his sons and put them in mortal danger. He has systems of information and data-gathering that put the FBI to shame, yet he is always losing his case noteshis ciphershis microfilmor some other valuable clue, usually by leaving it in best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school extra pair of pants, meaning that the Boys have to drive to Canada or Florida or somewhere to retrieve it.

I suppose he isn't mysterious at all; he simply embodies what many think of their own fathers: utterly powerful, contemptibly inept. Best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school article: List of The Hardy Boys characters See also: Leslie McFarlane.

We can tell the newspapers that we believe our father has met with foul play and that pay to get algebra course work won't bother to look into the matter, but don't let us disturb you at all—". Hardy's first name is given as Mildred. However, Stratemeyer Syndicate records list only Amy McFarlane as the author of the volume Keeline. The book in best analysis essay ghostwriters websites for school is Casefiles No.

The introduction of Pete Jones in the series predates the introduction of Valerie Brown from Josie and the Pussycatswho is often credited as the first African American animated character; the Hardy Boys first aired in while Josie and the Pussycats aired a year later in See also Billmanp. The Secret of the Stratemeyer Syndicate. Burgess, Steve October 7, The Hardy Boys Mysteries, — A Cultural and Literary History.

Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland Publishing. Ersten professional argumentative essay ghostwriters website for school Bewertung, Gary S The Cute and the Cool: Wondrous Innocence and Modern American Children's Culture.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Arctic Patrol Mystery. The House on the Cliff. New York: Archway Paperbacks. Dumas, Alan August 25, Girlhood in America: an encyclopedia. Frey, Christine August 5, Grant, Tracy 20 July Goldmark, Daniel; Taylor, Yuval The Cartoon Music Book. Chicago: The Chicago Review Press. Greenwald, Marilyn S The Secret of the Hardy Boys. Athens: Ohio University Press. Iverson, Dan October 12, Edward Stratemeyer and the Stratemeyer Syndicate. Keeline, James D In Cornelius, Michael G; Gregg, Melanie E.

Nancy Drew and Her Sister Sleuths. Secrets from the Syndicate Files Revealed" PDF. Kirkpatrick, David D July 29, The New York Times.

Kismaric, Carole; Heiferman, Marvin The Mysterious Case of Nancy Drew and the Hardy Boys. Ghost of the Hardy Boys: An Autobiography. McQuay, David August 16, The San Francisco Chronicle. Morris, Tim Winter Raritan: A Quarterly Review. The Nancy Drew Scrapbook: 60 years of America's favorite teenage sleuth. Rascals at Large, or, The Clue in the Old Nostalgia. Girl Sleuth: Nancy Drew and the Women Who Created Her. Masculinity And This web page Health: Coronary Heart Disease in Medical And Public Discourse.

Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield. Schleier, Carl May 18, Rajmohan, Akshay March 10, Scott, Ramsey September 22, Science fiction, children's literature, and popular please click for source coming of age in fantasyland.

California: Greenwood Publishing Group. In Lee, Josephine D; Lim, Imogene L; Matsukawa, Yuko. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. In Kottak, Conrad Phillip. Researching American Culture: A Guide for Student Anthropologists. Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press. Woolnough, Damien April 20, Hill, Jason July 13, The Sydney Morning Herald.

The Hardy Boys Original. The Secret of the Old Mill. Hunting for Hidden Gold. The Shore Road Mystery. The Secret of the Caves. The Mystery of Cabin Island. The Great Airport Mystery. What Happened at Midnight. While the Clock Ticked. Footprints Please click for source the Window.

The Mark on the Door. The Hidden Harbor Mystery. A Figure in Hiding. The Mystery of the Flying Express. The Clue of the Broken Blade. The Flickering Torch Mystery. The Secret of Skull Mountain. The Sign of the Crooked Arrow. The Secret of the Lost Tunnel. The Wailing Siren Mystery. The Secret of Wildcat Swamp. The Yellow Feather Mystery. The Hooded Hawk Mystery. The Clue in the Embers. The Secret of Pirates' Hill. The Ghost at Skeleton Rock. The Mystery at Devil's Paw. The Mystery of the Chinese Junk.

Mystery of the Desert Giant. The Clue of the Screeching Owl. The Viking Symbol Mystery. The Mystery of the Aztec Warrior. The Mystery of the Spiral Bridge. The Secret Agent on Flight Mystery of the Whale Tattoo. Danger on Vampire Trail. The Clue of the Hissing Serpent. The Sting of the Scorpion. Night of the Werewolf.

Mystery of the Samurai Sword. Mystery of Smugglers Cove. The Submarine Caper retitled Deadly Chase. Track of the Zombie. The Billion Dollar Ransom. Game Plan for Disaster. Day of the Dinosaur. Crime in the Kennel. The Search for the Snow Leopard. The Caribbean Cruise Caper. The Hunt for the Four Brothers. A Will to Survive. A Game Called Chaos. The End of the Trail. Crime in the Cards. Past And Present Danger.

Top Ten Ways to Die. Murder At The Mall. Deprivation House Murder House trilogy. Murder Der esl essays writer services usa Hauptgrund Murder House trilogy.

Double Trouble Double Trouble trilogy. Galaxy X Galaxy X trilogy. The Children of the Lost Lost Mystery trilogy. Be a Detective Mystery Story. American Teens Against Crime.

Warring Adolescents Revenge Division. The Hardy Boys in popular media. Byron Kane Frank's voice. Dal Mckennon Joe's voice. The Hardy Boys The Mickey Mouse Club. The Hardy Boys Last Train to Blue Moon Canyon. The Creature of Kapu Cave. Treasure on the Tracks. Juvenile Series books — Nancy Drew original series, — The Happy Hollisters — The Hardy Boys — Tom Corbett, Space Cadet — Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in.

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